tv PBS News Hour PBS July 29, 2013 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> ifill: a renewed bid for peace in the mideast gained momentum, as israeli and palestinian negotiators prepare to meet tonight in washington. good evening. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, israel's chief negotiator said despite cynicism and skepticism, there is hope for progress. we look at how secretary of state john kerry helped end the diplomatic stalemate. >> ifill: then, a senator at the center of compromises on immigration and executive nominations reaches across the aisle to the man who defeated him. we talk to arizona republican john mccain. >> when i was running against president bush, i was the brave maverick taking on his own
party. so now when we have a democrat in the white house and i take him on and obama care and other issues now he's the angry bitter old man. neither is true. >> woodruff: pope francis' remarks on gay priests today marked a striking shift from his predecessors. we look at what it all means, as he wrapped up his first foreign trip as head of the catholic church. >> ifill: the teen unemployment rate is almost double what it was just 13 years ago. paul solman reports on new efforts to find jobs for younger workers. >> i think we're in an uncorrected depression for teenage employment in america. the only thing we can do that's going to make a difference is mobilize the private sector to hire teenagers. >> woodruff: and with the motor city feeling the blues after filing for bankruptcy earlier this month, jeffrey brown takes a broader look at the fiscal health of america's cities. >> ifill: that's all ahead on tonight's newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
>> bnsf railway. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: the long-frozen israeli-palestinian peace process may be showing faint signs of a thaw. the two sides were sitting down this evening at the u.s. state department, face to face, for the first time in years. >> hours before israelis and palestinians met to relaunch
rare, direct negotiations, secretary of state john kerry this morning called for reasonable compromise. >> going forward, it's no secret that this is a difficult process. if it were easy, it would have happened a long time ago. i know the negotiations are going to be tough, but i also know that the consequences of not trying could be worse. >> in an effort to jump-start the stalled process, kerry has made six trips to the region since february. he was joined today by a former u.s. ambassador to israel, martin indick named special envoy for the talks. israel's cabinet agreed to release 104 palestinian prisoners to clear the way for fresh negotiations. prime minister benjamin netanyahu. >> this moment is is not easy for me. it is not easy for the cabinet ministers and it's not easy especially for the bereaved families whose feelings i understand.
but there are moments in which tough decisions must be made for the good of the nation. and this is is one of those moments. >> ifill: that decision quickly provoked protests by a number f israelis. today in tel aviv reactions were still mixed. >> it's a good development. i believe that it's the time to give this a chance and to try it again. i hope things are going to would. >> a terrible decision. it won't bring any good to the israeli nation. >> ifill: on the palestinian side, protesters on the west bank clashed with police on sunday. and today there was skepticism on the streets of ramallah. >> i think returning back to the negotiation again is a very big mistake from the senior leadership. >> ifill: that leadership, headed by president abbas does not govern gaza where hamas rules. the group never recognized israel's right to exist and it
condemned any plans for talks. >> hamas reiterates its objection to the return to negotiations between the palestinian authority in ramallah and a israeli occupation and reminds us the only beneficiary is the israeli occupation. >> ifill: prospects for the new state department talks are anything but clear. the last significant direct negotiations broke down in 2008. and attempted revival in 2010 lasted just one day. >> woodruff: for more on the prospects for peace, opportunities, and stumbling blocks, i'm joined by david makovsky, director of the project on the middle east peace process at the washington institute for near east policy. and hussein ibish, a senior fellow at the american task force on palestine. welcome back to the newshour. >> thank you. good to be back. woodruff: david makovsky, let me start with you. why are these talks happening now and do they have any better chance of success than what we've seen before? >> as we just heard in the set-up piece they haven't sat together for five years now. a lot has changed since then.
basically kerry comes in. remember this is president obama who on the second day of his first term had put a middle east negotiator in place, george mitchell. he's someone who clearly, this president, wants to do what he can to solve this tragic conflict which has gone on for decades. he's made six trips out there, more than any secretary of state recently. he basically said, look, you want this administration in, this is your last chance. so i think there's a sense, certainly on the palestinian side, that if they don't try this, you know, that they could write off this administration because we've got a lot of other issues to deal with here in the united states. this was a moment that it's unclear, people are hopeful that it's going to work but i think it's a window that could be lost if at least there isn't an effort. netanyahu has been willing to negotiate with abbas. >> woodruff: how do you see the willingness of the two sides to do this right now? >> i think from a political point of view, the situation is difficult for both of them frankly. i think that's why it took some
cajoling and some inducements and some persuasion and all those trips that david referred to by secretary kerry to get them to the table. but in the end at a minimum when the bilateral relationship is so important between israel and the united states and between israel and the palestinians, neither party wants to be seen internationally and particularly in washington as obstructionists a. the guys who say no. so in the end both of them came, i think, with some skepticism and with some suspicion of each other but also probably with some hope against hope that kerry is going to put together a formula and that they can find a formula to actually make progress both on the ground and at the table. >> david makovsky what is known about what they're going to talk about and what they're going to talk about first and then second and so on. >> i just will throw in one more thing of hope because everyone gets... you've never gone broke being a pessimist about the middle east. we're not here to predict breakthroughs but i think
something very interesting to listen for is netanyahu saying israel can not slide towards bi-nationalism. >> woodruff: what does that mean? >> that means that if israel wants to be a democratic country, a jewish country with equal rights for all its citizens, jewish and non-jewish, it needs a two-state solution. he has never framed peace in terms of israeli self-interest. he's doing it in the last three months. people who meet with them tell me he's doing it all the time with them. so again i don't want to hold... say that there will be a breakthrough tomorrow. it won't be. but this is something new, a new motif. i would just say in terms of the talks themselves, it might be a little bit boring over the next day because they're going to talk about what is a agenda, what is the frequency of the meetings? there's the venue and published reports saying they're going to move to the region. what is going to be the structure. which issues do they tackle first. >> if it's just about the process, how much does it really matter? >> it matters a great deal especially from the palestinian point of view because built into this relationship is a vast
asymmetry of power. it's probably the single greatest in modern history between two negotiating groups. the power of the israelis and the relative disempowerment of the palestinians is enormous. so for the palestinians, to be trapped in an endless series of sort of an endless loop of conversations with the israelis about... that don't seem to go anywhere is a nightmare season air yoa particularly when they remember in the 1990s that the number of settlers doubled between '93 and '98 from 200,000 to 400,000. now it's over half a million. for them terms of reference very important. agreeing to very specific framework about what it is they're talking about and what role the united states is going to play in brokering, in holding the sides to meet their agreements, in bridging and all that stuff is really very, very significant. it sounds like technical details but it sets us up for failure or success. >> woodruff: how much does it matter, david makovsky, how much
the public are behind this, the israeli public, the palestinian public? how do you read that? >> i think it's critical because we're not in the era of the giants anymore. when you had guys like rab even and sadat or king hussein of jordan, these were leaders who really swept the public behind them. even then there were problems. we shouldn't roman ties. we have two risk-averse leaders who don't want to get out ahead because they're usually look overing their right shoulder not the left shoulder. if you have public that are skeptical and even outright cynical, then they're not going to want to get out too much in front. for this to have any hope, these leaders, because they won't have a big breakthrough to announce immediately, they need to... their tone has to change where they engage what i would call synchronized political messaging. where they talk to each other's public and let the public see why there's something in it for them. >> woodruff: is is there a sense, hussein, that they're ready to do that? >> well, i think it's going to be slow.
they may be willing to, but they're going to be very cautious. i think there's another whole angle here which is especially on the palestinian side. there needs to be a lot of attention to improving daily living conditions, to provide a support, a bottom-up support for this top-down diplomacy. they need to see economic benefits. they need to see greater access and mobility. they need to feel that this is bringing an improvement to weather daily lives. if they don't see that, it's going to be much harder to sustain this because they can't live with the status co- as easily as the israelis can. they live under military occupation. >> how quickly do they need to see that? both of you are suggesting... >> immediately. i think immediately. i think this should be put in place within days. i think if there's a package of economic aid, it needs to be tied to accountability, transparency and good governance. i think we need to help the palestinians continue on the institution-building path and the reform path that they've been on. and help them build their
society at the same time that we pursue these negotiations so that it doesn't happen in a vacuum because for a while in the west bank, it will look like this is just some empty words in various far-flung places. >> woodruff: this raises the he request, david makovsky of how does one measure whether there is progress being made? >> it's going to be hard because there's going to be an effort to have a close hold. because each side is afraid that if they announce their concession, they're going to be susceptible back home: you sold out. you gave it away for nothing. you didn't get anything reciprocal in response. >> woodruff: they have to trust each other. >> right. they have to build that up. to pick up on what hussein said about: economic development. that is not controversial on either side. i think both sides want it. where israel thought it was a zero sum was what we saw in the set-up piece was the release of 104 prisoners, progress, but
involved in the murders of 55 civilians, mothers and their babies and things like that. in israel that is viewed as, well, abbas says he wants to show to his people that there's some changes on the ground but at whose expense? and that's a danger. we have to look for things that are not zero sum like economics. >> or security cooperation which has to be maintained and improved. that should in turn lead to greater access and mobility for palestinians and real talks about what the p.a. can do in area c which is the part that... which is the part of the west bank they've been barredded from operating in, 60% of it. all of that stuff. >> woodruff: all eyes on these talks starting tonight. thank you both very mu >> ifill: still to come on the newshour, senator mccain on the deeply divided congress; pope francis asks, who am i to judge?; summer jobs for low- income teenagers; and the economic health of american cities. but first, with the other news of the day, here's kwame holman. >> holman: at least 58 people died in a wave of car bombings
across iraq today. it was the latest in a wave of violence that's claimed nearly 700 lives this month alone. the 18 explosions rang out ato rush hour, targeting mostly shiite districts in baghdad. video from the scene showed the twisted remains of cars and debris in the streets. egypt was rocked by new bloodshed over the weekend, and europe's top diplomat arrived today, hoping to help calm things. early on saturday, security forces killed at least 83 supporters of ousted president mohammed morsi at a cairo sit- in. the interior ministry insisted its police fired only tear gas. today european union foreign minister catherine ashton tried to mediate an end to the violence. she urged the interim government to reach out to the muslim brotherhood. in washington, meanwhile, a white house spokesman condemned the weekend violence. >> it's is view of the united states that egyptian authorities have a moral and legal obligation to respect the right
of peaceful assembly and freedom of expression. and violence not only further sets back the process of reconciliation and democratization in egypt but will negatively impact regional stability. >> holman: the obama administration has so far stopped short of making any decision to suspend u.s. military aid to egypt. in syria, state media reported government troops have captured a key rebel stronghold in the city of homs. in response, activists put out video showing scattered fighting is continuing. they denied the army had taken full control of the district. president assad's forces launched an offensive in homs a month ago after capturing qusair, a strategic town near the border with lebanon. a major dragnet is under way in france, after a lone gunman stole $136 million worth of diamond jewelry on sunday. police say the man held up three guards and vendors during a diamond show at a luxury hotel in cannes. he grabbed the jewels and ran out in less than a minute. it's the largest in a series of major robberies in france.
james too maniy is the new director of the f.b.i. by a vote of 93-1. he served as deputy attorney general for a time under president george w. bush. he will succeed robert mueller who became f.b.i. director just before the 9/11 attack. on wall street today, the dow jones industrial average lost nearly 37 points to close just below 15,522. the nasdaq fell 14 points to close at 3599. those are some of the day's major stories. now, back to gwen. >> ifill: and to our newsmaker interview with arizona senator john mccain. i spoke with him on capitol hill earlier today. senator mccain, thank you for joining us. you seem to be in the middle of everything right now: immigration reform, financial regulation reform, the debt limit debate which is about to take off again. how did that happen? >> well, i've been involved in these issues for a long time, as you know, gwen. but it seems that sometimes
things sort of ripen and mature and are ready for action. honestly, i think it's the result of years of association with other members of the senate that are in the decision-making role. so, these issues come to fruition. if you were there when they're ready to be acted on, that's sort of what happened. >> ifill: were you worried that someone like harry reid the democratic leader who once said i can't stand john mccain is praising you on the floor of the senate? he was praising you on the newshour last week. is that good or bad for you? >> i'm sure that in some parts of arizona maybe i hope they didn't hear it. but harry reid and i came to the house together. in the election in 1982. then we came to the senate together in 19... the election of 1986. so we have a very long
relationship. of course we are of different philosophies and different parties. we've had our collisions. but i think the fundamental aspect of our relationship is that i respect harry reid and i think he respects me. if you have that basis, then you can work together. >> ifill: if the senate is talking to each other a little bit more now, what about the house? passed an immigration bill with a lot of effort here in the senate. now it doesn't sound like the house is particularly interested in dealing with the senate version. >> all we're asking is if they pass legislation when we go to conference, if we do not act on this issue, i think they are in fundamental agreement on one aspect of it. and that is you leave 11 million people in a limbo status in one respect and you have defact owe amnesty in the other respect because we're not going to round up 11 million people and send them out of the country. >> ifill: what if these house members, many of whom are loyal to the tea party wing of their party, go home and hear the
opposite, "don't you dare do that"? >> well, i think that the tea party is a very influential element of our party but i also think they're going to go home and they're going to hear from the evangelical community which is entirely supportive, the chamber of commerce, small business, large business, manufacturers. there's the broadest coalition of support for this legislation than i have ever seen on any piece of legislation since i've been here. so i hope they hear from them as well. >> ifill: let's talk about the debt limit. you've been through this before. you now are warning against shenanigans which might stop this from happening. what is your sense of where that stands right now? >> i think it's obviously gridlocked right now. one of the reasons why we have such low approval is americans get tired of this bringsmanship of workers maybe being laid off and the grand canyon being shut down and all of the consequences of this as we near the edge
again. i believe we will reach an agreement. i don't know exactly how now. we've also got the sequestration which is devastating our military and other aspects, nonmilitary side. could i just give you a small example. >> ifill: sure. we just had 19 brave firefighters die in arizona, as you know. and the budget next year, because of sequestration, is going to cut fire suppression by some $140 million. how can we justify that to the american people and the people in the west especially that are subject to these horrible forest fires? we need republicans and democrats... there's a group of us that are meeting and working and talking with the white house. it's slow. my fear is -- but i have to give you some straight talk -- that we may go to the edge of the cliff again. and the american people are tired of that. >> ifill: you mentionedded that you had been talking to the white house about this.
you've been trying to find can we call it compromise? that word that is back again. how did that happen? not long ago you said you and the president had no relationship whatsoever. what changed is. >> i think first of all the president and i have always had a relationship. we've had several meetings, for example, after the tragedy of the shooting in dueson he came to arizona and gave a really wonderful statement and helped the healing. there have been areas where we have worked together. but it's very clear to the president that he is in his legacy time. he's not going to run for office again. he is concerned about his legacy. whether it be closing guantanamo bay or the grand bargain or whether it be immigration reform. there's a number of issues that the president would like to see
results on. a number of those i am in agreement with him. >> ifill: you think that he has changed, not you? >> i think obviously... look, when i was railing against president bush and voting against his tax cuts and saying that rumsfeld ought to be fired, i was the brave maverick taking on his own party. now when we have a democrat in the white house who i lost to and take him on and obama care and other issues, now he's the angry, bitter old man. neither is true. i'm just a person here carrying on a legacy that was handed down to me by a number of greater leaders than me, including bob dole. looking for solutions to problems. and so i want to work with the president where i can. and there are many areas where we do not agree fundamentally. but that doesn't mean that you can't work with the president of
the united states. and the american people want us to do that. there's such a thing as compromise without betraying principle. >> ifill: how many times would you say you talk to the president or someone at the white house every week? >> it depends on what's going on. if there's nothing going on, i don't talk to him because i don't take their time. if it's something like this thing we just went through on the filibuster, the nuclear option, sometimes three or four times a day. on immigration reform, there was frequent calls also. but most of the work know i do is with colleagues on the other side of the aisle. >> ifill: chuck sheumer. i don't know. i've been watching the senate for a while. i never thought of you two as close friends. >> well, we've worked together on a number of issues including previous reform on nominations, on immigration, on this and other issues.
i think that chuck sheumer has reached out to try to work with republicans. and we have been receptive to that. and i must say, gwen, he's a very smart guy. two, his word is is good. gwen, that is a much rarer commodity around here than you would think. >> ifill: i think you used to say that about ted kennedy too. >> he is kennedyesque in those respects. >> ifill: as a former nominee of your party and having watched 2012 from the side lines as you look forward to 2016 do you think that the party survives or has another shot at the white house only if the kinds of things you're talking about really take root: the return of the moderate, the reaching across aisles, the bipartisan cooperation? >> yes, i think americans want that. from the republican party. but they also want results. you just can't go to the electorate and say, "we blocked everything that president obama was trying to do."
i think you've got to show them some positive results and some positive vision for the future. i'll say one other thing to you. if we don't enact immigration reform, let's say we enact it, comprehensive immigration reform. i don't think it gains a single hispanic voter. but what it does, it puts us on a playing field where we can compete for the hispanic voter. if we don't do that, frankly i don't see... i see further polarization of the hispanic voter. and the demographics are clear that are the republican party cannot win a national election. that's just a fact. >> ifill: senator mccain, thank you so much for talking with us. >> thanks for coming over today. nice to have you here in my humble office. >> ifill: online, you can find our full interview with senator rgcluding his reflection on the passing of retired colonel george "bud" day, mccain's cellmate when both were seriously injured prisoners of war in vietnam.
day died yesterday at age 88. >> woodruff: pope francis drew new attention today with some surprising remarks about gay catholics, as he wrapped up a trip to the americas that drew enormous crowds. for 82 minutes the pope fielded questions on his flight home from brazil. for the first time ever, there were no restrictions. francis was asked directly about a so-called gay lobby within the vatican analogiedly powerful influence inside the church. he struck a conciliatory tone on homosexuality in general and within the priestly ranks. >> everyone writes about the gay lobby. i still haven't found anyone who gave me an identity card in the vatican with gay written on it. if someone is gay and he
searches for the lord and has good will, who am i to judge? >> woodruff: the comments suggested a sift in acceptance but not in roman catholic policy which still holds that homosexual acts are disordered. at the same time, francis upheld the longstanding prohibition on women in the priesthood. but he did advocate an expanded role and cited an exalted role model. >> the madonna, maria was more important than the apostles, bishops, deacons and priests. women are more important than bishops and priests. >> woodruff: the pope's comments came as he returned from his first trip abroad since his march election. the 76-year-old argentinean had attended world youth day events in brazil including two huge outdoor services in rio. on saturday he told young people in soccer-mad brazil, which hosts next year's world cup, to set their eyes on a higher
prize. >> jesus offers us something more than the world cup. he offers us the possibility of a fruitful life without end. >> woodruff: he also exhorted brazillian bishops to get out of their parishes and spread more of their catholic faith which has seen many of the kateful leaving for evangelical protestant sects. then on sunday in the shadow of rio's famed christ the redeemer mountain top icon, an estimated three million people gathered on the beach. for more i spoke with journalist john allen who traveled with the pope for cnn and the national catholic reporter. john allen, thank you very much for talking with us. first of all, how significant were the pope's remarks about gays? >> well, judy, i would say they were extraordinarily significant at the level of tone but they do not represent a significant departure in terms of teaching. it was already on the books in
terms of the official doctrine of the catholic church that homosexual persons are to be treated with what the catechism, the official code of teaching, what it describes as respect, compassion and sensitivity. so the church's problem is with homosexual conduct not with homosexual persons. i think many gays and lesbians around the world are tell you that they're more accustomed to hearing from the catholic church what they perceive at least as judgment and a fairly negative judgment at that. to hear the pope of the catholic church openly saying when he meets a gay person he does not judge them, that is is at least in terms of the tonality and the symbolism, that is extraordinary. >> woodruff: so what about the tone? how much difference does it make that he's setting a different tone? >> we're going to have to see how this plays out, judy. all i can tell you is is that five months ago, those of us in the media business when we paid attention to the vatican, we were writing stories about the child sexual abuse scandals. they were writing about the vatican leaks mess, problems at
the vatican bank and so on. while those stories have obviously not gone away, they are no longer the dominant narrative about the catholic church. the dominant narrative about the catholic hurch now is how a charismatic pope takes the world by storm. start with the fact that francis just returned from a week-long stay in brazil where he drew at the end of his trip an estimated three million people or more to the beach twice, once on saturday night and again on saturday morning. the mayor actually renamed the beach for that week pope-a-cabana in honor of the pope's presence. he has revolutionized perceptions of the church and given it a new lease on life and i suppose for four-and-a-half months in office one would have to say that's an impressive early run. >> woodruff: were you struck bi- his use of words? he said who am i to judge when he's talking about someone who is gay. he is the pope, after all. >> he is the pope although?>yz t has been a signature aspect of his vocabulary since he was elected. he almost never refers to
himself as the pope. humble or a bishop of rome because of course the pope is also the bishop of the local diocese here in rome. but actually, judy, it was another bit i was more struck by. i have not done a formal key word search on this point but i've been paying attention to points for a long time. i can't recall a previous time a pope actually used the word "gay." to be fair, this was because the question that was put to francis was about the so-called gay lobby in the vatican. so the vocabulary was already on the table. you very rarely hear that kind of street language, if you like, from a pope. it's on the indication that this is a man who has a lifelong experience of being in contact with ordinary people. he quite obviously speaks their lingo. >> woodruff: he spoke about wanting a greater role for women in the church. but he didn't give any ground on whether women could be priests. how do you read that? was there an expectation that he might? >> no.
judy, i think it's been very clear from the beginning that francis is not a radical in terms of overhauling church doctrine. i think he is is radical in the literal sense of the word meaninmeaning going back to thes in this case the roots of the faith being in the gospel, the bible stories of jesus. he's trying to speak that very accessible, loving and positive gospel language. on women what he said was that women priests are off the table because john paul ii made that definitive. but he wants them to have much more important roles in the church. he also wants a deeper theology of women, that is, a kind of study and reflection on what their role is in terms of the spiritual message of the church. so again, i think the signature aspect of the francis revolution is that it is a remarkably new tone placed on top of what are basically the same teachings and the same doctrines the catholic church has always had. >> woodruff: john, you talked a minute ago about the impressive crowds he drew in brazil. speak to us about the success of
that trip and about his willingness to spend such a long time, over an hour, with the reporters on the airplane going back to rome. >> yes, judy. i mean, what i can tell you about the experience on the papal plane is is this. i was aboard the papal plane did but i certainly was not bored on the papal plane. the idea of having an hour and 20 minutes with the pope to put any question you want, all those pent-up curiosities you've always had and the hard-hitting questions that popes rarely engage directly, you know, this was sort of a dream come true. and that experience for us, if you multiply that by what the local officials in rio say was 3.2 million people who came to his concluding mass on the beach on sunday morning, i suppose that would be... let's be clear. other popes have been great magnets for humanity. john paul ii routinely drew crowds on his 104 foreign trips, in excess of a million when he was in manila '95 he had
somewhere between four and five million. its not like this sort of thing is unprecedented but the turnout suggests that this simple, humble, accessible, close-to-the-people style of pope francis is not just playing well in the media, judy. it is also playing very well on the streets too. >> woodruff: it looks to have been a remarkable trip and a remarkable interview. john allen, joining us from rome. thank you. >> woodruff: online, we're asking you, what do you think the pope meant with his comment about gays? share your thoughts on our facebook page. >> ifill: summer has long been a time of the year when many teens can find temporary work. but those traditions have been upended of late, as newshour economics correspondent paul solman reports in the second of two stories he's done on this portion of the struggling job market. it's part of his ongoing reporting, "making sense of financial news."
>> reporter: after graduating from high school in a low-income part of boston, yusuf sunun got a summer job at web retailer wayfair. >> i wanted to get work at a place that would help me in the long run. >> reporter: sunun heads to centre college this fall on a full scholarship to study computer science and economics. having moved here from ghana last year, he feels incredibly lucky to have a job, even if just for the summer. >> there are no jobs for students in ghana at all, because the adults are, like, competing for jobs. if you are in a different country and you look at america, it's like this god or something. >> reporter: you mean it's like heaven here. >> yes, that is how you see it. >> reporter: without folks to find and prep students like him, however, sunun probably wouldn't have this job. even in heavenly america, the teen unemployment rate is almost double what it was just 13 years ago. >> i think we're in a
uncorrected depression for teenage employment in america, and the only thing we can do that's going to make a difference is mobilize the private sector to hire teenagers. >> reporter: as executive director of boston's nonprofit private industry council, or the pic, neil sullivan is trying to mobilize through his youth job program. because youth jobs, including those once the staple of teenage summers, are now being taken by older workers. >> you have college students pressing down into a labor market that used to be for high school grads. you have high school grads pressing down into a labor market that used to be for teenagers and dropouts. the geography of the labor market changed, and 16- to 19- year-olds fell out of the equation. >> the pic's response is to prospect for ambitious urban teens like sunun, and then tout them to private firms like wayfair. >> we identify those teenagers who are ready to make a move-- you know, that spark of
motivation. you have to get it at that moment. and then we market them to employers in the professional labor market. >> reporter: sunun is one of two teens wayfairs daniel jerrough hired through the pic this summer. firms like his have become increasingly selective. >> we try to find people that are best in breed, if you will. >> reporter: best in breed? >> yes. and it is a challenge to get folks, especially young folks, that do show an aptitude for learning and for understanding, and that's really what's most important to us. it's that we can find someone that says, i may not know how to do this technically, or i may not know how to run that sequel period, but i understand the concepts that you're talking about. and that is a definite challenge. >> reporter: thanks to a citywide effort, boston boasts more teen jobs per capita than any city in the country. this summer, the pic alone lined up 3,000. >> what do we want? >> youth jobs! >> when do we want it? >> now! >> reporter: it's taken strenuous politicking to gin up public funding, direct pleas
from boston's mayor to recruit private employers. >> hi, i'm mayor tom menino. i'm asking you to hire a high school student for the summer. >> reporter: but despite year- round focus, there are still substantially fewer jobs in boston today than there were in the late '90s. >> once january starts, my number one priority is, get summer jobs for young people. >> reporter: 18-year-old john tabares has one of those jobs, in the mailroom of financial firm eaton vance. his family moved here from colombia when he was five. >> it's been very rough for us, but my parents never gave up. they kept working-- two jobs, three jobs. >> reporter: tabares graduated from one of boston's most competitive public high schools, and is headed to northeastern university in the fall. but finding work still took a push from the pic and the power of positive thinking from his school. >> before, when we were talking, you started to use the word "hopefully" about your future, and then you reworded the
sentence. >> they kept telling us, never say hopefully. always strive for what you want, because the people who succeed are the people that don't doubt themselves. >> reporter: and don't even say it out loud. >> yes, don't even say it out loud. just keep striving for whatever you're doing. nothing is unreachable. there's always a way. >> reporter: well, maybe. tabares had a 3.9 g.p.a., but he says most of his friends are jobless. >> it's not because they don't want to. it's because they haven't gotten the right help. if you give a helping hand to any kid, they'll take it, so... >> reporter: there aren't enough helping hands. >> yes, basically. they need people to guide them. they need someone. if it's not there, nothing's going to happen. >> reporter: that's why neil sullivan has been working for the pic for 20-plus years, during which time teen summer jobs have inexorably shrunk-- jobs that are key, he says, to arming young americans for the future.
>> it's not just about reading and writing and mathematics, you know, in terms of being a productive employee, a professional, a manager. it's about a set of skills that we learn experientially. we learn them on the workplace. so if half as many teenagers in america are getting those experiences, it's going to have a profound impact on the work force that's transitioning to adulthood. >> reporter: wayfair pays yusuf sunun $10 an hour. is that an okay wage? >> that is way okay, because i try to convert it to ghanaian money, and i see, like, how do you make this kind of money in an hour? and that is like someone's pay for a month, who is a teacher or who has gone to graduate school. >> reporter: but that's not why he feels blessed to be working this summer. >> right now, the most important thing is the experience and the knowledge that i get from the job. i got to make connections. i got to, like, know how to use, like, basic office tools, and how to like relate with coworkers.
>> reporter: tabares is making $11 an hour. but he's not in it for the money either. >> i'm doing it to gain things that's going to help me in the future, because i know that if in the future i graduate from my... when i graduate from college, i'll look for something that's going to pay me more. and how did i get there? with the help of everyone, because of all the things i'm learning at every single job. >> reporter: and indeed, help from everyone may be necessary to put more of americas 16- to 19-year-olds to work, since there are 17 million of them, and 12 million of them are jobless. >> ifill: online, we posted an extended conversation with neil sullivan.
>> woodruff: next, we examine the financial health of our nation's cities in the wake of detroit's bankruptcy. jeffrey brown is here with that discussion. >> brown: to what degree is detroit a special case? in what ways is it representative of problems in other cities? those and other questions have been much in the air since the bankruptcy filing. for some answers, we turn to kathy wylde, president and c.e.o. of the partnership for new york city, a nonprofit focused on the city's economy, infrastructure, and education system. author and urban studies theorist richard florida, director of the martin prosperity institute at the university of toronto. his books include "the rising of the creative class" and "the great re-set." and bruce katz of the brookings institution, co-author of "the metropolitan revolution: how cities and metros are fixing our broken politics and fragile economy." welcome to all of answer those questions. to what degree is detroit special? in what says does it tell us something larger?
>> i think detroit is special in the extent of the collapse. i mean this is a very large city. 138 square miles. it has seen radical population loss from two million in 1950 down to less than 700,000. and the out-migration of jobs. a great portion of the jobs are located more than ten miles from the downtown. unlike many other cities. but it's similar to other cities. what we're seeing is the emergence of a network of corporations and civic leaders, philanthropies and universities that are really coming together to build on the special assets and advantages that the city has in its downtown primarily and its midtown. >> richard florida, same question to you. what does it tell us and what doesn't it tell us about the health of cities? >> well, first off, detroit has declined e
leaders like dan gilbert are put ago lot of money into bringing jobs back downtown. it's interesting that bankruptcy has occurred at the acculumation of decades of disinvestment, movement of jobs out. the bankruptcies occurred just at the time the city is beginning to turn a corner. i do think detroit is unique in going through this bankruptcy. i don't think... you know, is this going to spread all over the united states? i don't think it will spread through the united states. i think detroit will ultimately come out stronger because of this. >> kathryn wylde, what are the immediate lessons you're taking from detroit. >> new york has its own near-bankruptcy experience in the 1970s. that was an instance of a failure of public and private leadership. and the city did not live within its means. the same certainly is true of detroit. and it's good to hear that there are efforts underway to do something about it. but i think we have to recognize cities don't print money.
states don't print money. that's really the province of the federal government. cities have to live within their means. they have to have a very viable tax base. that has to be a top priority. clearly that has not been the case historically in detroit over the last decade. hope flil it will be going forward. >> brown: bruce katz, what... where do you see the challenges for cities that are not doing well? what are the biggest factors? what are the biggest problems they face? >> i think for cities they need to understand what are those assets and advantages that you can build on? for pittsburgh after the steel crisis in the late '70s it was about diversifying their economy, building off the so-called eds and meds, the research institutions and the medical campus. you've seen pittsburgh basically come back. for other cities, let's say, akron, to try to build off its special niche in the manufacturing economy, akron was the rubber capital of the world. now it specializes in polymers and plastics and its still a
manufacturing player in bioand clean energy. so cities have to understand, what's your niche? what is your function? what is your role and how do you build smartly, strategically through a network government, corporate, civic, university. >> brown: richard, do they all understand that because surely you and bruce especially started in a very positive note here. yet we have detroit, we have a lot of problems still. >> well, i think cities have realized they're not going to grow their economies by bribing companies to come in. just as bruce said they're going to build on their own strategic assets and as specialized as they are and bruce knows this, they also to be diverse. in the united states the cities and regions that are having trouble are the manufacturing regions that have not revitalized and developed their knowledge assets. in those sun belt regions that are dependent on real estate and construction, our economy is being reshaped around knowledge centers, big and small.
in ann arbor right outside of detroit is doing fabulously well and energy centers and those are becoming the powerhouses of the u.s. regional economy but there are very real winners and losers in this economy. for those falling behind, they have to take steps to specialize, to focus on their niche but also to diversify their economy. >> brown: just to stay with you. how much is population growth a factor one way or the other? >> zero. we have a pretty good analysis out of the martin prosperity institute that finally breaks the notion that population growth is synonymous with economic growth. it is not associated with employment growth very strongly. it is not at all associated with productivity growth. it's not at all associated with wage growth. it is associated matter of factually with higher rates of unemployment. i think we have to get over the notion in america that population growth equals economic growth. in some cases it does but not very much. >> brown: kathryn wylde start there with the population growth issue. >> while growth of population may not be critical the quality
of the talent pool is c.i.t. critical. that depends on the education system, partnerships and building up of your higher education systems. it depends on creating a place that is safe and livable, where people who have choices want to locate. of course that's the big challenge that every city faces. those cities that have been successful in attracting and maintaining top talent are the ones that are thriving. they are the centers of innovation in our economy. they are driving the national economy. they're with the study just produced by some top economists that came out last week, a study of equal opportunity around the country. which cities provided the greatest opportunity for people to move out of the bottom rung of the economic ladder and up to the top? and those cities, it's no accident detroit was in the bottom couple of those cities and cities like pittsburgh, seattle, boston, new york were in the top ten. >> you know, we did something on that study last week on the program. let me just stay with you for that. when you look at the cities that
are not allowing citizens to move up the ladder or that are not thriving, what do you see as the biggest single factors? >> clearly their education system is failing but also transportation infrastructure. green cities that will attract people who are looking for healthy, attract tive environments and obviously safe cities. if the city isn't safe, as we found out in new york, went through a very difficult time in the 1980s. today we're proud to be the safest big city in america. perhaps the world. that has a lot to do with what brings people here, what supports talent. >> brown: bruce katz, you wanted to jump in? >> i would just say we need to redefine tallen. we look at the stem economy, science, technology, engineering, math. about a fifth of the american economy. a good portion of these jobs can actually be filled by people with high school-plus. right? remember shop, remember trade, remember voc-ed?
we have to bring that back to the united states and have the special high schools and also community colleges customized. >> brown: when you think about americans, we still love our cars. >> absolutely. brown: many people still seem very willing to live far away from where they work or where they play. do you see the character of american cities changing fundamentally? >> this is changing. because actually we've seen driving taper off. we've seen transit going up like a rocket. we see people choosing particularly millen yells but also empty nesters beginning to choose communities where they can walk, where they can bike, where they have options around transportation to get to work or to the necessities of daily life. the economies of cities are being shaped, as rich has said, but also our communities are being reshaped. to fit very different demographic preferences in this country. in this regard the path of sprawl is not necessarily prologued. as urban growth is tapered off,
city growth is coming up. this is a different american landscape than we've seen in the past. >> brown: this comes with winners and losers, not just cities winners and losers but populations within cities. >> yeah, we're seeing incredible levels of unequal economic opportunity. rates of income and socioeconomic inequality in our cities. it's no longer. as many of bruce's own studies, the brookings studies have shown it's no longer just the poor in the city and the rich in the suburb. we have a fragmented and fractured metropolis with areas of concentrated advantage right in the center of the city alongside areas of concentrated disadvantages and poverty growing in our suburbs right next to affluence. this whole idea that it's the city that dilapidated and the suburb that's booming is changing as our economies are changing. we have two migrations in this country. those with high educations, college degrees, advanced
degrees in the professional and knowledge sector have a great deal of mobility. those don't have those kinds of degrees whether in pittsburgh, detroit or even new york, and prospects are better in new york, they're finding themselves stuck in place. so i think we're dealing with two very different sorts of situations. in fact when we look at this, our spatial segregation is even worse than our economic unevenness. >> brown: very briefly, 30 seconds we have, your city not that long ago was in deep now. now we have detroit. is there a lesson for how one revital... one city revitalizes itself? >> certainly there is. i think that the key in new york was public sector business, organized labor came together and really identified what our common interest is in making sure new york was both a great platform for international business but also a city of opportunity where all people could rise up. so i think that detroit can do the same thing. clearly i think bruce katz would
say in a moat row poll tan context i think they're going to need a lot of support from their larger region but i would say that certainly an american city has every opportunity. >> bwn: richard florida, bruce katz, kathryn wylde, thank you all three. >> thanks for having me. >> woodruff: before we go, a word about a woman of "firsts" who died over the weekend. former congresswoman lindy boggs led an improbable life born marie clay burn she was raised on louisiana sugar and cotton plantation. she married a young lawyer who became a democratic powerhouse in washington. he disappeared in an alaska plane crash in 1972. a year after she ran for his seat, became the first woman elected to congress from louisiana. she also became an outspoken advocate for equal rights for
women and african-americans. she was the first woman to chair a national democratic convention. served as ambassador to the vatican. she was a mother to three including n.p.r., a.b.c. and former newshour congressional correspondent cokey roberts. lindy boggs was 97. >> ifill: again, the major developments of the day. a renewed bid for peace in the mideast gained momentum, with israeli and palestinian negotiators meeting face-to-face tonight in washington. and pope francis said he will not try to judge priests who are gay. he spoke in a wide-ranging news conference as he flew home from brazil. >> woodruff: online, capturing america from the car window. kwame holman has more. >> holman: inspired by jack kerouac's "on the road," bob dylan folk songs, and the evolving american landscape, three artists photographed the open road.
see their take on americana on art beat. all that and more is on our web site, newshour.pbs.org. gwen? >> ifill: and that's the newshour for tonight. on tuesday, we'll talk with new york senator kirsten gillibrand about ending sexual assaults in the military, and we'll report on the verdict in the bradley manning trial. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you online, and again here tomorrow evening. thank you, and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: moving our economy for 160 years.
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let's make a deal. three multibillion dollar mergers announced in three different industries today. why the rush to walk down the corporate aisle now. big oil, big week. exxon mobile, chevron, bp, all report earnings. will their results energize the stocks? you're being hit with unexpected fees, it's legal, and the cost is eye popping. all that and more tonight on nightly business report for monday, july 29th